Thursday, March 19, 2020

The bourgeoisie and proletariat classes according to Karl Marx essays

The bourgeoisie and proletariat classes according to Karl Marx essays One basic tenet Karl Marx's defines in his famous Manifesto of the Communist Party is the distinguishing characteristics of two opposing social classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat classes. These classes can easily be defined as those who gain wealth (bourgeoisie) from the working class (proletariat). While the bourgeoisie class continues to gain wealth and power, the proletariat falls in a downward spiral of social and economic crisis. This paper will examine how each class differs according Marx's theory illustrates a good versus evil society. In his manifesto, he says, "Society as a whole is more and more splitting into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat" (Marx). He predicts that a "haunting specter of Communism" (Marx) is looming ahead in the future, unleashing a revolution that will overthrow economic forces, and governments as well as social and cultural forces that exist in capitalist countries. Marx urges this overthrow by the proletariat class, asking them to liberate themselves and unify under the Communist Party. Communism will lead them in a revolutionary action that will overthrow the bourgeoisie and thus win them the world, which the bourgeoisie has created. (Lavine 306) According to Marx, the bourgeoisie is: Unfit to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery, because it cannot help letting him sink into such a state, that it has to feed him, instead of being fed by him. Society can no longer live under this bourgeoisie; in other words, its existence is no longer compatible with society. (Marx) According to T. Z. Lavine, author of The Philosophic Quest: From Socrates to Sartre, Marx identifies the proletariat class is the "most revolutionary class" that has existed up till this present time. The b...

The Basics of Mental Retardation essays

The Basics of Mental Retardation essays There are many schools that service children with developmental disabilities. As a special education teacher, I will have the privilege to teach those children in need of help. That help could be in areas such as reading, writing, and the ability to comprehend. Those are the necessities that are needed to teach special needs children. In this research paper, I have researched two disorders that affect school children: mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Mental retardation is common in the United States, and mostly in schools children. I have worked with children who were mentally retarded and at the same time had cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy is also another common disorder that affects school children in the classrooms. What are developmental disabilities? Developmental disabilities are a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments. People with developmental disabilities have problems with major life activities such as language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living. Developmental disabilities begin anytime during development up to 22 years of age and usually last throughout a persons lifetime. Mental retardation is characterized both by a significantly below-average score on a test of mental ability or intelligence and by limitations in the ability to function in areas of daily life, such as communication, self-care, and getting along in social situations and school activities. Mental retardation is sometimes referred to as a cognitive or intellectual disability. Children with mental retardation can and do learn new skills, but they develop more slowly than children with average intelligence and adaptive skills. There are different degrees of mental retardation, ranging from mild to profound. A person's level of mental retardation can be defined by their intelligence quotient (IQ), or by the types and amount of support they nee ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Manor Definition, Significance in the Medieval Period

Manor Definition, Significance in the Medieval Period The medieval manor, also known as vill from the Roman villa, was an agricultural estate. During the Middle Ages, at least four-fifths of the population of England had no direct connection with towns. Most people did not live on single farms as they still do today, but instead, they were associated with a manor- a social and economic powerhouse of the Middle Ages.   A manor was usually comprised of tracts of agricultural land, a village whose inhabitants worked that land, and a manor house where the lord who owned or controlled the estate lived. Manors might also have had woods, orchards, gardens, and lakes or ponds where fish could be found. On the manor lands, usually near the village, one could often find a mill, bakery, and blacksmithy. Manors were largely self-sufficient. Size and Composition Manors varied greatly in size and composition, and some were not even contiguous plots of land. They generally ranged in size from 750 to 1,500 acres. There might be more than one village associated with a large manor; on the other hand, a manor could be small enough that only part of a villages inhabitants worked the estate. Peasants worked the lords demesne (the property farmed outright by the lord) for a specified number of days a week, usually two or three. On most manors there was also land designated to support the parish church; this was known as the glebe. The Manor House Originally, the manor house was an informal collection of wood or stone buildings including a chapel, kitchen, farm buildings and, of course, the hall. The hall served as the meeting place for village business and it was where the manorial court was held. As the centuries passed, manor houses became more strongly defended and took on some of the features of castles, including fortified walls, towers, and even moats. Manors were sometimes given to knights as a way to support them as they served their king. They could also be owned outright by a nobleman or belong to the church. In the overwhelmingly agricultural economy of the Middle Ages, manors were the backbone of European life. A Typical Manor: Borley, 1307 Historical documents of the period give us a fairly clear account of medieval manors. The most detailed is that of the extent, which described the tenants, their holdings, rents, and services, which was compiled on testimony by a sworn jury of inhabitants. The extent was completed whenever a manor changed hands.   A typical account of the holdings is that of the manor of Borley, which was held in the early fourteenth century by a freeman named Lewin and described by American historian E.P. Cheney in 1893. Cheney reports that in 1307, Borley manor changed hands, and documents enumerated the holdings of the 811 3/4 acre estate.  That acreage included: Arable lands, 702 1/4 acresMeadow, 29 1/4 acresEnclosed pasture, 32 acresWoods, 15 acres  Manor house land, 4 acresTofts (homesteads) of two acres each, 33 acres   The possessors of the manor lands were described as demesne (or that which was farmed outright by Lewin) including a total of 361 1/4 acres; seven freeholders held a total of 148 acres; seven molmen held 33 1/2 acres, and 27 villeins or customary tenants held 254 acres. Freeholders, molmen, and villeins were Medieval classes of tenant farmers, in descending order of prosperity, but without clear-cut boundaries that changed over time.  All of them paid rents to the lord in the form of a percentage of their crops or labor on the demesne. The total annual value of the estate to the lord of the manor of Borley in 1307 was listed as 44 pounds, 8 shillings, and 5 3/4 pence. That amount was about twice what Lewin would have needed to be knighted, and in 1893 dollars was about U.S. $2,750 a year, which today equals about $75,000.   Sources Cheyney, E. P. The Medià ¦val Manor. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 4 (1893): 75-91. Print. Dodwell, B. The Free Tenantry of the Hundred Rolls. The Economic History Review 14.2 (1944): 163-71. Print. Klingelhà ¶fer, Eric. Manor, Vill, and Hundred: The Development of Rural Institutions in Early Medieval Hampshire. Montreal: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies Overton, Eric. A Guide to the Medieval Manor. London: Local History Publications, 1991. Print

Text Features to Navigate - Table of Contents, Glossary and Index

Text Features to Navigate - Table of Contents, Glossary and Index   A positive approach to teaching text features is not only to use them in instruction, or create worksheets, but to give students practice using those text features in other ways, as a group.   The features in this article (Table of Contents, Index and Glossary) are not found directly in the text but either in the front of the book (Table of Contents) or in the back (Index and Glossary) and are tools to help the student use the text to find information.    The Text Features Table of Contents The first page after the frontispiece and the publishers information is usually The Table of Contents.   You will find the same features in an ebook, as well (since they are usually digital forms of the printed text.)    Usually they will have the title of each chapter and the page number.   Some will even have subtitles for subsections which the author uses to organize the text. Glossary Often, especially in a student text book, words that appear in the glossary will be highlighted or even highlighted in a color.   As the age of the student and difficulty of the text increases, the glossary words will not appearthe student is expected to know that they can find specific vocabulary for the subject in the glossary.   Ã‚   Glossary entries are very much like dictionary entries, and will often have a pronunciation key and at least the definition for the word as used in the text and subject.   Sometimes authors will provide other definitions, but in either case, it is important for students to understand that when there is only one, there may be more than one meaning, and when there are multiples, only one definition should be chosen to make sense of the word in the context.    Index The index, at the end of the book, helps students find information in the body of the text.   We know that in order to research for a paper, we need to know how to find information in a text using an index.   We can also help students understand that when they have read a text and cant recall specific information, that information can be found in the index.   At the same time, students need to understand how to use synonyms to find information they are looking for - They may not know that to learn about the signing of the constitution, they should look first for Constitution in the index, and then hopefully find Signing as a sub subject.   Instructional Strategies Introduce the Terms Table of Contents, Index and Glossary First, of course, you need to find out if your students can name and then find text features.   Text features are being introduced almost as soon as students begin reading, in late first grade.    Still, students have significant difficulty with reading, they probably havent been paying attentionthey have probably been more attentive to ways to avoid having to read aloud.   So . . .   Choose a text.   It may be one you are using in your class, or you may want a non-fiction text that the students can have in front of them.   I find that Reading A-Z has excellent non-fiction.   (I will be using a text later to illustrate using the Treasure Hunt strategy for practice.)    I would recommend, for these purposes, to use a text that is at or below the students independent reading level, so that the code (decoding the text) is not the focus of your lesson.   Ã‚   Find the text features.   Send the students to specific page numbers and have students put their finger on the text feature, or have students find the particular item. i.e. Find the Table of Contents and put your finger on the words Table of Contents to show me you know how to find it.   Model using the text feature: Table of Contents:   i.e. Find the third chapter. What is the Title? What will you probably read about in this chapter? Index:   We know our book is about dogs.   I have a chihuahua, so help me find where I can read about chihuahuas.   (Be sure to check there is a section, first!) Glossary:   Find a word in the textIve chosen apprentice from Sellman, Jane.   Benjamin Franklin from Reading A - Z.   (p.7)   Read the text aloud.   When you get to the word, remind students where the glossary is and have a student find the word in the glossary, and read it aloud to you.    Games Cant beat games to get students motivated and give them practice!   Use favorite games and give your students practice.   here are some ideas for these text features. Glossary Go:   Put all the words in a books glossary on 3 X 5 cards and  shuffle.   Assign a caller, and divide your group into teams.   Have the caller read the word and place it on the table.   Have a child from each team ready when the word is read and find it 1) in the glossary and then 2) find the sentence in the text.   The first person to find the word in the text raises their hand and then reads the sentence.    This game asks the students to use the glossary to find the page and then to search the page for the word in context.   Text Feature Treasure Hunt Two ways I see to play this: Individually.   Make this a race to see who finds the items first:   i.e.   What does colonial mean? Go! The student who finds the answer first gets a point.   Play until you have a winner.   Requires some preparation. In a Group.   Make each task a clue from the text.   Make two or three sets so you can divide your group/class into more than one group.   Have the words in the answer correspond to something in your class, or . . . label locations where you hide the next clue with a word in the answer.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Article 4 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Article 4 - Essay Example Seemingly, a rush decision to implement what has not been sufficiently exhausted may elicit a regressive effect rather than a progressive one. Generally, the article expresses confidence in the new technology but expresses reservations of its actualization in the absence of utter scrutiny from all the concerned stakeholders. R-DNA plays a pivotal role in expediting the time within which DNA results are obtained (Asplen par. 1). In the past, the experience has always been waiting for lengthy durations for the determination of DNA results. The problem with that was that the further away the results were from the time of the commission of a crime, the more problems it paused for the investigation team. The DNA played the role of a component in the investigation because it could not be sufficiently relied to isolate the identity of a suspect. However, with a possibility of getting the DNA results within a record ninety minutes to one hour, the DNA test will assume the role of driving the investigations and not merely being a component. R-DNA is poised to free government labs of various tests that previously conducted there. Such a move will see the government labs intensify lab usage for sophisticated tests that require human intervention to figure out the conclusion. According to Asplen (par. 3), the room created in the labs will enable specialists to curl through evidence to come up with a hidden information to expedite the judicial process. R-DNA is also likely to prove useful to government agencies that are not criminal in nature (Asplen par. 6). For example, border patrol may wish to establish the authenticity people’s identifications through this test. Current mechanisms for establishing a person’s identification are culpable of artificial alterations, thereby compromising the integrity of the system. For example, use of fingerprints may prove

Rural Delivery Journal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Rural Delivery Journal - Essay Example My town is a small community at the base of a mountain range. Most residents of the community have lived in the area for multiple generations. My family has lived there for four generations, essentially the entire time since our ancestors immigrated to America. There is a single convenience store that serves the community. It sells gas and grocery items. The only other commercial/industrial building is the post office that serves the community. The post office is a remnant left from when the community was a railroad stop in the late 1800s. Regarding roads, there is an equal mixture of asphalt and gravel roads. No road is over two lanes, and it takes a journey to get to an interstate. Culturally, the community is very homogenous. The people are largely white and work in agriculture or blue collar manufacturing. Those with college degrees are few and far between. In fact, a college degree marks one as an outsider and as a â€Å"city boy† or â€Å"city girl.† Politically, the people are divided between Democrat and Republican. The older residents are almost all Democrat because they believe that Hoover led them to the Great Depression, and Hoover was a Republican. Almost all of the younger residents are Republican because they value the right to bear arms and other conservative values. In addition, most people are religious, and the majority religion is Baptist. John Q. Student Professor Doe English 344 8 May 2000 â€Å"Fish Cheeks† Journal I sympathize with how Tan felt at the Thanksgiving dinner. It is very difficult to be different from the norm. I have social phobia, and I am always very aware and self-conscious in social situations. Though I know that it is irrational, I feel like everyone is always watching me and judging me. I am sure that Tan felt that way for much of her life. I also am familiar with the situation that Tan is describing. I grew up in a very rural community. My parents, whom I love greatly, are not very educated and en joy the simple country life. I have always been different. I excelled in school and am enjoying college as well. But, every time I bring someone from college home, I feel very self-conscious. Since most of the people I attend college with are from middle-class suburban or urban families, I don’t feel like they can understand my family. My parents’ grammar and topics of conversation are sometimes embarrassing. Like Tan, however, I am very proud of my family. I have skills and knowledge that many people I attend college with will never have. I can both hoe a row of corn and write an essay with equal skill. John Q. Student Professor Doe English 344 8 May 2000 â€Å"Mary Ellen’s Story† Journal The fact that three children die every day in the United States due to abuse is a startling and unforgivable statistic. As to why a parent would intentionally harm a child, I cannot think of any reasonable rationale. I understand that some parents are abused and then ab use their children. I also know that children can test the nerve of the parent to a great degree. However, there is never an excuse for abuse. I have a good explanation for the reason that child abuse goes unreported. Contemporary American society emphasizes the individual. Our society believes that the individual is the most important element. There is no concept of society as an organism in itself. The result of this belief is unfortunate. For instance, there are no laws protecting Good Samaritans in America. A person who

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Miumiu Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Miumiu - Essay Example The portfolio of products of this brand includes Apparel, Jewellery, Accessories including eyewear, Bags and shoes though the main focus is on apparel. The collections portray the strong and autonomous identity it has created for itself (Jackson and Shaw, 2006, p.69). The brand aims at evoking a lavish sense of intimacy and liberty with an attention to intricacies and superior quality. The brand targets those women who would explore and experiment with their choices in fashion. Thus liberty, freedom and autonomy are the key words that drive their business. Miu Miu had the opening fashion show in Paris in 2006. In 2011, it also started retailing its products online. The concept in which the Miu Miu boutiques were designed had a liberty aspect to it in the most dramatic way possible and a combination of archetypal material and futuristic facets were incorporated in the style to highlight the unfailing courage of the modern opulence and sensuality in the style of Miu Miu (Tungate, 2012, p.192). The flagship store was also shifted to a building of historic relevance in Milan, in order to incorporate this taste and the fashion shows were conducted in Paris rather than Milan which the brand believed went better with the image of the brand. The uniqueness was maintained also by eliminating men from their target of customers. In its efforts to promote the brand in times of recession, the brand launched â€Å"The Women’s Tales† a project in which five prestigious women film directors were asked to shoot silent films which would have a focus on the Miu Miu line of clothing and accessories and the first four were screened at the Venice International Film Festival. The fifth one is on the making. The theme around which the brand revolves is ultra modernity, style and luxury (Liu, 2010, p.47). The products are designed by the specialists after thoughtful observation of the recent developments around the world, the changing society and shifting cultures. Thus t he brand has moved out of the limitations of the showrooms and boutiques in order to interact with the rest of the world full of diversity. All these have led the family business to a becoming a successful fashion brand operating in more than 70 nations. History of the parent company: the Prada Group The Brand Prada came into existence in 1913, when Mario Prada set up a store selling luxury items including bags and jewellery in Milan. The goods were handmade and exclusively designed with materials of first class quality. Immediately the brand became a status symbol for the aristocratic population of Europe. In 1919, the brand started supplying merchandise to the Italian Royal Family (Prada, 2012, p.5). In 1977, the granddaughter of the originator, Miuccia Prada, restructured the brand with Patrizio Bertelli, a Tuscan businessman, and sustained the business in a new way. Over the years, opened stores in various other places and met success. The brand still targeted the elite of the s ociety and produced apparel, shoes and other accessories. The brand Miu Miu was the brainchild of Miuccia Prada who started this new brand as a form of diversification strategy targeting the ultramodern women. Employee Creativity and Innovation in MIU MIU The distinctive feature of Miu Miu comes from the typical process of management